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The modern building construction, in the present world, is after the extensive use of insulations on various surfaces of commercial and residential structures. The issue that causes the “style making” of the “structures” is a highly principal factor in energy conservation in public areas.  Aware of the fact, Towlidieh Patina Sazane Fars Company has been trying to enjoy an effective role in raising the standard of optimum consumption of energy through presenting the cellulose patina finish.  In addition to suitability for heat and cold insulating the varieties in color develops a joyful, fresh, and peaceful environment within the homes inner space.  This type of covering has a high compatibility with the environment, as it is solely mixed with water for application, that is there is no need to use any chemicals for the application.

Some Major Features of Cellulosic Taranom Finish:

  • washable
  • repairable
  • applicable on various surfaces
  • different design styles
  • unlimited variety of colors
  • heat insulating
  • cold insulating
  • soundproof
  • waterproof
  • lowering energy consumption considerably
  • lowering light reflection
  • lowering sound eco
  • fire resistant
  • shockproof
  • no crack
  • anti static (repelling dust and burnt molecules in atmosphere)
  • quick applicability
  • no odor or volatile material
  • high longevity
  • economical

The Applications of Cellulosic Taranom Finish
The cellulosic Taranom finish is applicable on all types of surfaces.  This type of finish is mainly appealing to mass producers, who wish to economize on cost and time after the stage of gypsum clay plastering by switch to applying cellulosic Taranom finish.
In other words the gypsum plastering stage may be eliminated, as it is an expensive and time consuming procedure.  As it is apparent by the above-mentioned items, cellulosic Taranom finish may be applicable on any kind of surfaces (gypsum, paint, wood, etc.) with respect to the relevant instructions.
The cellulosic Taranom covering may be applied for decorating the inner spaces.  It suggests that in addition to its notable insulating characteristics, it may also be used as a decorative surface in interior designs.
Since this covering is offered in a large variety of colors, due to its versatility, it may easily be used for different designs (geometrical and natural shapes including flower, tree, etc.) it can be applied in educational areas, such as the day nursery, school, and college that creates not only a comforting space, but also a beautiful and attractive one.   
The covering can also be employed within a sitting room, cinema hall, and public busy locations such as underground passage, terminal, and airport.
 Due to using natural raw materials, it improves the patients morale, as it causes a totally hygienic and tranquil environment, because of low sound eco.

Cellulosic finish is extensively used within the advanced industrialized nations, and it is certified by reputable competent authorities internationally, such as The German Biology Institution, Berlin Institute for Study and Testing of Materials, The Russian Institute for Health and Hygiene, Istanbul University Center for Material Test and Production Technology, also certification by German DIN standards.

Comparative Study of the Specifications of the Cellulosic Finish (Patina) with other Construction Materials

The cellulosic finish meets the objectives of a modern building construction via the view of three working factors:

   A. Expense
   B. Comfort and Safety
   C. Refining the Environment

Some of the major features of cellulosic finishes--that are clearly instrumental in controlling the above mentioned factors—are as follows:

   1. Heat insulating
   2. Sound proof
   3. Moisture proof
   4. Low weight
   5. Fire resistant
   6. Quick application
   7. Beauty and diversity in color
   8. Optimization in energy consumption

Each of the features assists us in arriving at the objectives in an ideal building construction by means of elevating the capability in controlling one or the three above factors, A, B, and C.

In this chapter, we compare the above features with that of similar materials, in order to attain reasonable physical quantities in the area of replacing the cellulosic finishes with similar materials.

1 – Thermo physical Characteristics (Heat Insulating)

This feature that resulted in the recognition of the cellulosic finishes as a heat insulating prioritizes the application of this material to similar ones by controlling the above three factors A, B, and C.

Table 1 – Thermo physical characteristics of insulations and common construction materials

ItemType of MaterialThermal Conductivity Coefficient (W/mk)
1Gypsum plaster0.22
2Mineral Wool0.046
5Cement Mortar0.72

 According to the above table, the cellulosic finishes have a very low thermal conductivity coefficient.  Comparing the numerical amount of 0.22 (the thermal conductivity of gypsum) and .039 (the thermal conductivity of cellulosic finishes) it is indicative of exceptional difference between these two materials (please note that the cellulosic finishes are a replacement of gypsum plaster and paint together). 

Also comparing the numerical amount of 0.046 (the thermal conductivity of mineral wool) and o.039 (the thermal conductivity of cellulosic finishes) reveals that the insulating quality of this material is not only incomparable with gypsum, but also preferable to the common insulating materials in constructions.

This characteristic is helping us in the control of the two above A and C factors.  Naturally, the insulating power of the material will lower the energy consumption for heating and cooling in the buildings, and the reduction in energy consumption leads to lowering the cost of energy supply, reducing the size of the heating and cooling units (controlling the above factor A) , and finally lowering the rate of polluting the environment (controlling the above factor C).   

We have presented the extent of achieving the objective in quantitative form in “The Optimization of Energy Consumption” chapter.

2 – Sound Insulating

Once a building is sound proof, then an environment with more peace and comfort is created.  In this way the annoying noises are banned from entering the building, thus we reach the factor B of the above, that is an ideal construction work.

Table 2- Acoustic characteristics of insulators and current construction materials

ItemMaterial TypeThick mmTransmission Loss Coefficient
1Brick wall no gypsum plaster 140.533
2Brick wall with gypsum plaster 152.543
3Wood 518.5
4Porous gypsum board 7627.2
5Cellulosic finish 324

Referring to Table 2, we get once the gypsum thickness of 12.5 mm, we will have just 10 db of sound loss (discrepancy of items 1 and 2 in Table 2).  While, with a layer of cellulosic finish with 3 mm in thickness we will arrive at 24 db of sound loss.  Assuming that the rate of sound loss is in direct proportion with material thickness, with respect to the thickness and the sound loss coefficients in the above, we will have:

(24/10) X (12.5/3)= 10

That is, the cellulosic finishes are 10 times more efficient in sound insulating as compared with gypsum plaster.  Needs to add that the range of sensitivity of human ear to sound intensity is as follows.

Best suitable sound to human ear:10 – 30 db
Medium and fairly suitable:30 – 50 db
Loud and unsuitable:50 – 70 db
Annoying and deafening:70 – 90 db

Considering the small discrepancy between the standard and abnormal sound and the sound loss through a 3 mm layer of cellulosic finish, it seem quite interesting. As the above table and the explanation, if a loud and annoying sound (50 – 70 db) is produced outside a building, by applying just a 3 mm layer of cellulosic finish on the building walls the annoying sound can be reduced to best or medium one.

The range of an excellent sound 10 <  50  - 24 <  30
The range of a medium sound 30 < 70  - 24  <  50

This characteristic has extended the application of the cellulosic finishes to amphitheatres, conference halls, cinemas and else.

3 – Moisture Insulation

The moisture absorption power in cellulosic finishes is up to 17%, without losing the heat insulating and covering qualities, whereas, as compared with gypsum, this figure is only 10%.  Also the volume shrinkage against o.98% of moisture is exceptional and the actual shrinkage is only 2.2%.

Therefore, the cellulosic finishes are not prone to destruction due to moisture and the resulting shedding, so lowering the repair costs, (controlling the factor A above).  Besides, in case of use as interior finish, it will help the surrounding stay as pretty (controlling the factor B above).

4 – Weight

The following table is indicative of the density of cellulosic finishes, as compared with that of other construction materials.

Table 3 – The density of insulations and other common construction material

ItemType of MaterialDensity (volumetric mass) kg/m^3
1Gypsum plaster 1680
2Mineral wool 190
5Cement mortal1860
7Cellulosic finish45

As it is noted the cellulosic finishes possess the lowest density among other construction materials and for the application require minimum thickness (according Table 2) which leads to a lower weight on the building.  Such exceptional low weight same way requires less labor, transportation, and storage as compared with gypsum and paint, as well as other insulators leading to lower cost (controlling factor A above).  Also the lighter weight helps lowering the weight of the building concluding in smaller dimensions, lighter columns, and foundations that will decrease the cost (controlling factor A above) and all these will diminish the earthquake hazards (controlling factor B above).

Regardless of the implementing, developing and minor weight advantages of the material, if we wish to include the transportation costs in a rough comparison, we shall arrive at an interesting conclusion with an approximate example:

Supposing we wish to finish the surface of the walls of building with 350 sqm.  In case of using gypsum layer of 5 mm in thickness, the required volume of gypsum would be 1.75 cubic meter, that it would be equivalent to the volume of a Nissan car room.  But considering the high density of gypsum, to transport it a Nissan pick up would not be powerful enough, so a larger vehicle as a truck is needed to transport (1.75 X 1680 = 2940 kg) of load.  While, to finish the same surface of walls by using cellulosic finish with the same thickness, only (1.75 X 42 = 73 kg) of the material is needed, and the load is easily transportable in a Nissan pick up.  This preliminary comparison discloses the considerable transportation costs and economization in fuel consumption in the vast national level (controlling factors A and C above). 

5 – Fire Resistant

What may occur to one’s mind, by the appearance of cellulosic finishes, is its inflammability.  According to the international standard ASTM E119 there is a definition for inflammability namely “Flame Spread Coefficient”.  It is interesting that according to this standard the coefficient for cellulosic finish is the same for gypsum, as 15.  This quality is assisting us towards attaining the controlling factor B above.

6 – High speed Execution

Time is a factor, which is quite effective in rising or lowering the expenses.   The shorter the execution period the lower the construction work costs.  The costs relating to site mobilization, manpower, labor, storage, administrative, and else that are involved as side expenses during the execution can be lowered by shortening the execution period.  In addition, by shortening the execution period the timing of capital return will move up and in this way helps the cost controlling. 

In another rough comparison, for finishing a wall surface as much as 300 square meter (an apartment with 120 square meter area) a gypsum plaster craftsman and a help would be spending about 10 days; and a painter craftsman with a help would need 2 days for preparation and another 8 days to carry out the paint work.  Therefore, 20 days in total is needed to implement the gypsum and paint work of the apartment; whereas covering the same walls with cellulosic finish by a craftsman and a help would take no longer than 3 days.  This simple example reveals the economization of time by 85% that naturally helps us in controlling the factor A above.

7 – Beauty and Variety in color

With respect to the amazing influence by architecture in one’s spiritual health and moods, the significance of painting and decoration is disclosed.   

The color composition and the pretty look of the cellulosic finishes has encouraged us to use them, in particular within day nurseries, schools, hospitals, sport centers, work places, and administrative centers; and it is assisting us in attaining to factor B above.

8 – Optimization of Energy Consumption 

In development projects (in particular large or high rise buildings) one of the most effective factors in raising the executing costs are the air conditioning systems installation.  In addition, apart from the installation, the energy supply to enjoy a pleasant cool air in summer and a pleasant warm air in winter will burden a high cost to the users of the building. 

Additionally, the uncontrolled consumption of energy results in the wasting the national capitals at the same time causing intensive pollution of the environment.  Therefore, the lowering consumption of energy in a building will lead to controlling the factors A and C above.

We can show the lowering consumption of energy by using cellulosic finish in place of gypsum and paint, in a simple example:

Let’s assume an enclosure by 1 cubic meter in volume (1 x 1 x 1) made of brick.  In one time we cover the surface we gypsum by 5 mm in thickness, and the next time with cellulosic finish and same 5 mm thickness.  We like to learn, in each case, how much of cooling rate in W is required to maintain a constant temperature difference of ∂t = 10, between the interior and exterior space (∂t = T1 – T2 = 10) where we arrive at a criteria to compare the optimization of energy / fuel consumption.

Assumptions :

The heat is transferred by conduction. 
The temperature difference of interior and exterior space     ∂t = 10 degree
The thickness of brick wall     Rw = 0.2m
The thickness insulation (interior cover)     Ri =Rg = Rc = 0.005m           
Thermo physical characteristics of gypsum (Table 1)     Kg = 0.22 w/mk
Thermo physical characteristics of cellulosic insulation (Table 1)     Kc =0.039 w/mk
Brick wall thermo physical characteristics (Table 1)     Kw = 0.72 w/mk

Bearing in mind that the required thermal load is obtained from the formula

q = ∂t / { (Rw / Kw * A) + (Ri / Ki  * A) }

The example is applied for both cases as follows.

I – Using gypsum for interior cover:

q = ∂t / { (Rw / Kw *A) + (Rg / Kg *A) } =

qg = 10 / { (0.2 / (0.72 x 1 ) + ( 0.005/(0.22 x 1 )} = 33.3 w

to incorporate the six faces of the enclosure:

Q = 6 q = 6 x 33.3 = 200 w

Therefore, to maintain a 10 degree C temperature difference between the interior and exterior space, in the case that the enclosure is covered with gypsum, we will need a thermal energy equivalent to 200 watt.

II – Using cellulosic insulation covering the interior surfaces:

q = ∂t / { (Rw / Kw *A) + (Rc / Kc *A) } = qc = 10 / { (0.2 / (0.72 x 1 ) + ( 0.005/(0.039 x 1 )} = 24.63 w

to incorporate the six faces of the enclosure:

Q = 6q = 6 x 24.63 = 148 w

It is learned that to maintain the same temperature condition, we will need 148 w.

This simple example clarifies that by using cellulose insulation we will need 200 – 148 = 52 w less, that is 0.26% less energy or fuel.

The splendid result of 0.26% in optimization of less energy is not anything to be ignored.  The tremendous costs imposed on the nation and the state on account of uncontrolled consumption of energy and fuel is not covered to anybody.

The example is indicative that in the event of using cellulosic insulations, in place of gypsum and paint, the heating and cooling systems may be selected as much as 0.26% smaller in capacity, which means lowering the costs of the construction and the air conditioning systems.